Drowning is a major cause of death for children.
The surest way to prevent children drowning is to supervise them at all times when they are in or near the water.
Child drownings can best be prevented by following the three Steps to Home Safety:
Step One: Spot the Hazard
In looking for hazards which could lead to the drowning of a child follow the basic strategy for spotting hazards:
Think about the following objects that could lead to a drowning in your home:
Step Two: Assess the Risk
Whenever you Spot a Hazard - STOP AND THINK - ask yourself:
Think about the following strategies for dealing with water hazards for children:
DON'T GET LAZY OR COMPLACENT. It's not enough that you emptied the wading pool last time after it rained -- the danger is there again.
KEEP A CHECKLIST AND GO OVER IT ON A REGULAR BASIS. If pilots with twenty years of experience can do it several times a day, you can do it once a month!
REMEMBER: Telling people about a hazard is not sufficient on its own. Somebody must take responsibility to reduce or eliminate it. If nothing else is going to work, you might have to get rid of the hazardous item altogether.
Make sure you have a list in a prominent place near your phone showing phone numbers such as:
Step Three - Make the Changes Quickly
Once you have spotted a water safety hazard and decided the best way to deal with it . . . DON'T DELAY !
Make the changes as soon as possible before somebody does get harmed. Children can be drowned in water hazards that have been around for a long time.
If you ignore a hazard long enough, it may seem to go away. In reality, it becomes even more dangerous because people forget it's there.
People, and especially children, are not safe until they are separated from the hazard. You will feel safer, others in the house will be more relaxed, and children will play more safely when hazards have been isolated or removed.
The following articles were downloaded from the U.S. Consumer Products Safety Commission.
CPSC Doc. #5084: Baby Supporting Ring Devices
CPSC Doc. #5097: Always Supervise Children
The following article, based on California Health Services Agency/Environmental Health Department Informational Bulletin No. 97-08, explains the different types of pool covers.
The following issues of the NSW Public Health Bulletin (New South Wales, Australia) are in Adobe Type Manager PDF format and require Adobe Acrobat Reader or similar software:
The British Consumer Safety Unit at the Department of Trade and Industry contracted a pool cover study in 1992. This Unit is the British equivalent of the U.S. CPSC. Results of the study were published in the following articles:
Norris BJ, Wilson JR, Pridham MS, Dickens PM & Pretty H, 1994, "The design and safety of swimming pool covers." International Journal for Consumer Safety, 1(3), 163-174.
Norris BJ, Wilson JR, Pridham MS, Dickens PM & Pretty H, 1992, "A cover story - an evaluation of swimming pool covers." Contemporary Ergonomics 1992, Proceedings of the Ergonomics Society Annual Conference, Aston, 7-10 April 1992, 212-217.
The entire 162-page Final report to the Department of Trade and Industry, Consumer Safety Unit, entitled The Design and Safety of Swimming Pool Covers is available by contacting:
Telephone - 44 (0) 115 9514039
Fax - 44 (0) 115 9514000
Email - email@example.com
Logan, Pamela, MD; Branche, Christine, PhD; Sacks, Jeffrey, MD, MPH; Ryan, George, PhD; and Peddicord, John, MS. "Childhood Drownings and Fencing of Outdoor Pools in the United States, 1994", Pediatrics, Vol. 101 No. 6 June 1998 (electronic edition only) can be ordered from:
The URL for the article is: http://www/pediatrics.org/cgi/content/full/101/6/e3
However, to access that you must be a subscriber to the print journal.
CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION
The U.S. agency.
U.S. CPSC DOCUMENT MENU (Gopher) DROWNING DOCUMENTS
U.S. CPSC PUBLICATIONS
REPORT A DANGEROUS PRODUCT TO U.S. CPSC
National SAFEKIDS Campaign
MEDACCESS - PREPARE FOR THE UNEXPECTED: PREVENT CHILD DROWNINGS
HTML version of CPSC Doc #4359, plus related links
KIDSOURCE: ALWAYS SUPERVISE CHILDREN
HTML version of CPSC Doc #5097, plus related links
CHILD SAFETY TIPS: WATER SAFETY
CHILDREN'S SAFETY ZONE
CHILDREN AREN'T WATERPROOF
State of Hawaii Department of Health Injury Prevention & Control Program
DROWNING FACTS AND PREVENTION CHECKLIST
HIGH RISK PROFILE - WATER-RELATED PROFILE
HOME POOL SAFETY FOR KIDS
INFANT SWIMMING RESEARCH, INC.
LIFE WITH NANNY: WATER SAFETY TIPS
NATIONAL SAFETY COUNCIL FACT SHEET LIBRARY
NSC: POOLSIDE TIPS TO PREVENT A DROWNING
POOL BARRIER INC.
PULLIAM POOLS: BE WISE-SUPERVISE!
RED CROSS: HOME POOL SAFETY FOR KIDS
SAFETY TURTLE Alarm System
SWIMMING POOLS - SUMMER FUN, YEAR-ROUND DANGER
WATCH THE WATER - DROWNING PREVENTION
Orange County Fire Authority's water safety page
The following U.K. Site discusses chemical application, usage and safety:
SWIMMING POOL OPERATORS AND OWNERS PAGES
This site covers many pool safety topics, e.g., chemicals, diving:
POOL CENTER'S POOL SAFETY PAGE
This site includes information on teaching infants to swim:
SWIMBABES -- TEACHING INFANTS TO SWIM
NSPI -- NATIONAL SPA AND POOL INSTITUTE
The pool industry's trade organization.
Links to many pool and spa manufacturers.
POOLS, ETC. INC.'S LINKS
AQUEOUS SEARCH ENGINE
A search engine and website dedicated to water-related sites
POOL AND SPA BUSINESS DIRECTORY
Search for pool or spa industry members by name or state.
AQUATIC RISK MANAGEMENT, INC.
mainly Litigation Support
INTERNATIONAL SWIMMING HALL OF FAME
The above pool safety information from Rick Reinckens http://www.hubblespacephotos.com/pool-safety-tips.html